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â  â  â  â  general considerations location •spinal cord tumors are classified as extradural, intradural-extramedullary, or intramedullary •extradural tumors are most common and account for 50% of spinal tumors •intradural-extramedullary account for 30% and intramedullary account for 15% of spinal tumors signalment •90% of spinal tumors occur in large breed dogs •28% of spinal tumors occur in cats and dogs < 3 years feline spinal cord tumors general considerations •lsa is the most common tumor affecting the spinal cord in cats •other tumor types are rare but include: •extradural: vertebral osa •intradural-extramedullary: meningioma •intramedullary: very rare but astrocytoma has been reported •intradural-extramedullary tumors account for > 50% of non-lymphoid tumors with the most common being meningioma, but nerve sheath tumors and lsa are also reported spinal lymphosarcoma •extradural lsa (primary or secondary) is common in cats •median age 24 months •majority of cats with spinal lsa are felv positive •clinical signs are uncommon with only 11% showing neurologic dysfunction •spinal lsa is diagnosed in up to 21% of cats with lsa in 1 necropsy study •96% (22/23) spinal lsa are solitary, bit spinal involvement with multicentric lsa is considered more common •spinal lsa has a predilection for the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord clinical features history •extradural spinal cord tumors are usually slow growing and progressive over weeks to months •acute onset of neurologic signs may be caused by tumor-induced hemorrhage or ischemia •intramedullary tumors have a more rapid growth rate and have a higher incidence of hemorrhage, ischemia, and necrosis clinical features •clinical signs depend on the tumor location and are difficult to differentiate from other causes of myelopathy •extradural tumors may involve the meninges, spinal nerves, or nerve roots which results in varying levels of pain from discomfort to extreme spinal hyperesthesia •tumors involving the brachial or lumbar intumescence may cause lameness, limb elevation, neurogenic muscle atrophy, and depressed spinal reflexes •hyperesthesia is associated with extradural and intradural-extramedullary tumors, but not intramedullary tumors •fundus, lymph node, and rectal examination s. long does viagra daily take work viagra without a doctor prescription Do people use viagra recreationally buy cheap viagra viagra online viagra 100mg review watermelon seeds natural viagra viagra for sale can you buy viagra in a chemist cheap viagra online buy viagra buy viagra online Mens health viagra online generic viagra online cheap viagra buy genuine viagra no prescription viagra 100mg review viagra jokes quotes cheap generic viagra mg viagra benefits reviews can you purchase viagra online viagra dosage take viagra dosage in pulmonary hypertension safe viagra dosage